外交家 / 中國亞投行邁前一大步

外交家 / 中國亞投行邁前一大步

May 27, 2015

原文:https://thediplomat.com/2015/05/a-big-step-forward-for-chinas-aiib/

A Big Step Forward for China’s AIIB 中國亞投行邁前一大步

Member countries have agreed on a charter for the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. 成員國在亞洲基礎設施投資銀行章程上意見達成一致

By Shannon Tiezzi May 23, 2015

In March, a flurry of counties (including U.S. allies like the U.K., South Korea, and Australia), applied to join China’s new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) before the March 31 deadline for joining as a founding member. The new bank will have authorized capital of $100 billion, to be used in infrastructure projects throughout Asia.

三月時,一些國家(包含美國盟友,例如英國、南韓以及澳洲)趕在三月底前,申請加入中國新設的亞洲基礎設施投資銀行(AIIB),以期成為創始成員。新銀行法定資本額為一千億,將用以在亞洲基礎設施計畫。

Being a founding member means having a say in the AIIB charter – especially important for countries that had expressed concern about governance issues related to the new bank. Today, China’s Ministry of Finance announced that the 57 founding members of AIIB have agreed upon the bank’s charter, which will be signed in a ceremony in Beijing at the end of June.

成為創始成員意味著在亞投行章程中享有決定權,對於新銀行治理方面表示關切的國家尤為重要。今日,中國財政部宣佈,亞投行57個創始成員國對於銀行章程意見上達成一致,將於六月底時於北京舉行儀式簽署。

The AIIB negotiators met in Signapore from May 20-22 for talks on the bank’s charter. At stake were a number of concerns: how the bank’s capital will be provided and the corresponding stakeholder levels of each country. China has previously said that 75 percent of AIIB shares will be reserved for Asian countries, meaning European countries like the U.K., Germany, and France will have little say.

亞投行談判代表,從5月20日至22日在新加坡進行銀行章程談判。在股權方面仍有些問題:銀行資本該如何提供以及每個國家相應持股程度為何。中國先前已表示,亞投行75%股份保留予亞洲國家,意味著歐洲國家例如英德法,將只有較少決定權。

Delegates from the Singapore meeting told Reuters that China will likely wind up with a 25-30 percent stake in the bank, making it the largest shareholder. India is expected to be the second largest shareholder at 10-15 percent. That meshes with predictions from the Korean Institute for Economic Policy, which calculated that China and India would be the largest shareholders at roughly 30 and 10 percent, respectively. KIEP, which based its calculations on having 75 percent of shares for Asian countries and allocating shared based on GDP and PPP (purchasing power parity), predicted that Indonesia, Germany, and South Korea would be the next three largest shareholders, all with just under 4 percent.

新加坡會議代表向路透社表示,中國將很可能最終持有25-30%銀行股份,成為最大持股者。印度則以10-15%成為第二大持股者。此與韓國經濟政策研究所預測相吻合,其計算中國與印度將至少持有約略30%及10%。韓國經濟政策研究所,另計算基礎以亞洲國家持有75%股份以及以GDP與PPP(購買力平價)為基礎計算分配股份,預測印尼、德國以及南韓將成為接下來第三大持股者,其餘國家則享有4%以下股份。

The biggest question mark for KIEP was the status of Russia – is it included as an Asian country or not? If Russia is part of the Asian group splitting 75 percent of AIIB shares, it would (along with India) would have around 10 percent, while China’s percentage would drop to 25. Meanwhile, other non-Asian countries (Germany, France, the U.K., etc) would see their shares rise by comparison, as Russia would no longer count toward the 25 percent of shares reserved for non-Asian members.

韓國經濟政策研究所最大的問題是:俄羅斯的角色,即其是否屬於亞洲國家?如果俄羅斯屬於亞洲集團,分享75%亞投行股份,他將(連同印度)將享有約10%股份,此時中國股份將下降到25%。同時,其他非亞洲國家(德英法等國),他們股份則將相對提高,因為俄羅斯不再計算在25%保留予非亞洲國家成員股份內。

That question remains unanswered for now – there are very few details on the actual contents of the charter (formally known as the Articles of Agreement, or AOA). That will likely change soon as each individual government begins the process of having the AOA ratified through domestic processes.

此問題在現在仍沒有答案,關於章程(正式名稱為協議條款(the Articles of Agreement, AOA))實際內容仍沒有什麼細節透露。但此情況很可能快速改變,每個政府將開始進行國內程序批准AOA。

In addition to allocating shares, the AOA contains information on the governance structure (including the question of whether or not China has veto power over bank decisions) and on the processes for approving and overseeing loans. China has previously promised that the AIIB will follow the same international standards as other lending institutions like the IMF when it comes to environmental concerns and labor rights. China has also promised, however, to keep AIIB “lean and efficient” rather than weighted down by bureaucratic procedures. In other organizations, “some standards are harsh and even attached with political conditions,” Xinhua noted, saying that China founded AIIB precisely to get around those issues.

除分配股份外,AOA包含治理制度(包含中國是否具有否決權得以凌駕銀行決策問題)以及審核與監督貸款流程等資訊。中國在先前承諾,亞投行面對環境考量以及勞工權益時,將比照考量其他貸款銀行之相同國際標準,如國際貨幣基金(IMF)。同時也承諾,將致力保持亞投行「精實與效能」,而非龐大的官僚體制。在其他組織,「有些標準是苛刻的,甚至附帶政治條件」新華網這麼表示著,即中國創設亞投行恰是要避免此些問題。

China says AIIB is expected to begin operations by the end of 2015, although some delegates are uncertain if every member country will be able to win legislative approval for the AOA that quickly.

中國表示,亞投行預期於2015年底開始運作,假使各成員國立法機構仍夠盡快批准,但仍有部分代表尚未確定。

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